List of Logical Fallacies

List of all logical fallacies: List of Fallacies, and check out Your Logical Fallacy Is too.

1) Argument from Authority (Argumentum ab auctoritate) (Appeal to authority)

“Though reliable authorities are correct in judgments related to their area of expertise more often than laypersons, they can still come to the wrong judgments through error, bias or dishonesty. Thus, the appeal to authority is at best a probabilistic rather than an absolute argument for establishing facts.”

2) Appeal to Popularity (argumentum ad populum) (Argumentum ad populum)

“It is logically fallacious because the mere fact that a belief is widely-held is not necessarily a guarantee that the belief is correct; if the belief of any individual can be wrong, then the belief held by multiple persons can also be wrong. The argument that because 75% of people polled think the answer is A implies that the answer is A fails, because, if opinion did determine truth, then there would be no way to deal with the discrepancy between the 75% of the sample population that believe the answer is A and 25% who are of the opinion that the answer is not A.”

3Appeal to Tradition (argumentum ad antiquitatem) (Appeal to TraditionAppeal to tradition (wikipedia))

Just because it was acceptable in past cultures and times, does not mean it is acceptable today. Think racism, slavery, and corporal punishment.

4) Appeal to Nature (Appeal to nature)
Many ‘natural’ things are also considered ‘good’, and this can bias our thinking; but naturalness itself doesn’t make something good or bad. For instance murder could be seen as very natural, but that doesn’t mean it’s good or justifiable.”